Named for Royal T. Wheeler, an early Texas jurist, Wheeler County was created by the Texas State Legislature in 1876. In 1879 the county was organized and Mobeetie (then known as Sweetwater), the only town in the county, became the county seat. A stone courthouse was erected from locally quarried materials in 1880. That structure was replaced with a wood frame building in 1888.Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
As the area grew and its center changed, the town of Wheeler was officially designated the county seat in 1908. The wooden courthouse was moved to this site, but by 1913 it was too small to serve the county's needs. A separate building was erected on the southwest corner of the courthouse square that year to house the county clerk's office; it was enlarged in 1923. A bond election held in 1925 set aside funds for a new courthouse. The 1888 courthouse was sold to Sheriff Riley Price, who dismantled it and used the lumber to build barns on his ranch east of town.
Designed by E. H. Eads of Shamrock, the edifice was built by local contractors Hughes and Campbell. Featuring Palladian windows and Corinthian columns characteristic of the Classical Revival style, the 1925 Wheeler County Courthouse typifies the favored style of American public buildings of its time. The 1913 county clerk's office was torn down in 1929; curbs and sidewalks were in place after the summer of 1930. Gas heat and a water system were installed in 1926. The streets on all four sides of the courthouse were paved in 1944 and the surrounding streets in the late 1970s. Standing prominently on the town square, the historic Wheeler County Courthouse continues to serve as the center of local government.