Recognized by many as "one of the most active communities in Southwestern Ohio, the Bloomingburg area was a significant link in the Underground Railroad. As many as twelve to sixteen escaped slaves were said to have been passed through the Bloomingburg area at one time. The Bloomingburg Presbyterian Church was the center for Underground Railroad activity, in coordination with the Fayette County Anti-Slavery Society. The church, led by Rev. William Dickey and Col. James Stewart, both staunch abolitionists, was organized on November 22, 1817. The current church, built in 1847, still stands today along with several other structures that were used as stations on the Underground Railroad. The Fullertons, Dickeys, Usticks, Steeles, Edwardses, Stewarts, Alexanders, and Gillespies served as station keepers and operators. The Fayette County Anti-Slavery Society was organized in Bloomingburg on May 27, 1835, with 52 members. Col. James Stewart at one time served as one of the Vice-Presidents of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society.
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The great success of this areas abolitionist movement was also aided by the African American community in Bloomingburg. This community was composed of many ex-slaves and free blacks who served as conductors on the Underground
Railroad. Littlebury Stewart registered his free papers in 1835, which made his family one of the first free families of color in Fayette County.
Joseph Stillgess was an African American conductor. He stated: "I would take the fugitives (slaves) in a spring wagon to the house (William Ustick)... This sort of thing went on all the time when I was there at Bloomingburg." Bloomingburg is located on the east fork of Paint Creek, a key route that the fugitive slaves followed. In the Paint Valley area were many stops such as Chillicothe, Frankfort, Good Hope, Greenfield, Roxabel, South Salem, and Washington Court House. Without the assistance of these important links, the Bloomingburg Area Underground Railroad would not have been possible.