Stephens County's first courthouse, erected in 1872, was a small pine building with desks for county officials lining the walls. In 1883, a new three-story red stone courthouse with a tower replaced the original structure.
Discovery of oil in Breckenridge in the 1920s resulted in a dramatic increase in population that led to the need for a larger courthouse and jail. Voters approved a bond in June 1924 to build a new courthouse and architect David S. Castle of Abilene designed the building constructed in 1926.
Although not occupied until December 1926, a grand dedication ceremony was held here on July 4, 1926. The porch and sandstone entryway from the 1883 courthouse were retained and are located on the southeast end of the square. During the depression of the 1930s, the courthouse became a financial burden and was refinanced. The last payment was made in 1962, thirty-six years after its completion.
The four-story Stephens County Courthouse is a fine local example of the Classical Revival style and features limestone construction, arched entry doors and monumental primary entry stairs rising to triple-arched entry doors, with ten columns above.