Fort Buford had no hospital during the first year of its existence. In the fall of 1867, quarters originally constructed to house the interpreter and mechanic were pressed into service as a hospital. The following summer, the hospital was moved into a building originally uses as a barracks. Both of these buildings were unacceptable as hospitals. The first was too small, the second was poorly lighted and its kitchen located too close to the ward.
In 1871, a 24-bed hospital of wood frame construction was built at this location. It featured a two-story administration area, with one-story wards projecting from the north and south sides. It remained the post hospital until the fort was officially abandoned in 1895. It was then sold at auction and move to the nearby town of Buford where it became the St. Elmo hotel.
The post surgeon was usually a commissioned officer in the Army Medical Corps. Sometimes civilian doctors were hired by the army. In addition to managing the hospital, the post surgeon was responsible for the health of the garrison, including matters of diet, food preparation and sanitation. Medical reports produced by the post surgeon give today's historians a glimpse of the living conditions at Fort Buford.