Following the Civil War, the United States Congress authorized the creation of six regiments of black U.S. Army troops. The Tenth Cavalry was organized in 1867 under the leadership of Col. Benjamin Grierson (1826-1911). The order creating black troops also specified that they would be commanded by white officers. Facing problems of racial discrimination at the regiment's headquarters in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, Grierson wanted the Tenth Cavalry reassigned to the West, and they arrived at Fort Concho in the Spring of 1875.
The contributions of the men of the Tenth Cavalry to the settlement of the American West are of major importance. They took part in grueling scouting and mapping expeditions and campaigns against hostile Indians, often facing days without proper supplies or water on the high plains. They were instrumental in the defeat of the Mescalero Apache Indians led by Chief Victorio in 1880.
The men of the Tenth Cavalry were stationed at Fort Concho until 1882, when they were moved to Fort Davis. Transferred frequently after 1885, members of the unit eventually served throughout the world, including Cuba, North Africa, Germany, Korea, and Vietnam. (1987)