Finding a mill site on the Sugar River, founder John Frederick settled here in 1845. His mill prompted "Yankee" settlement and a village developed with a hotel/tavern, blacksmith, harness maker and general store.
In 1847 an octagon-shaped school was erected followed by the formation of Baptist, Methodist and Presbyterian congregations.
In 1851 the village was platted and named for Frederick's native place, Belleville, Canada West. A post office was established in 1852. In the 1850s and 60s Swiss, Irish and French groups acquired adjacent farm lands.
The 70s and 80s brought new growth with a library, opera house and railroad. By 1900 a fire department and high school were part of the flourishing village.
Noted as public ground in the 1851 plat, this square once crossed by an Indian trail, became the site of many events. In 1887 a "tent city" was erected here for laborers working on the new railroad line.
Erected in 1894 the brick building was used as a village hall, library, firehouse, and jail. After 1900 a bandstand and fountain were added to the park. Park events included holiday celebrations, fairs, concerts, and free summer movies. Village offices and firehouse were relocated in 1923. The library remained until 1978.
In the 1980s the bandstand and fountain were rebuilt and the building's first floor refurbished as a meeting room/museum. In 1982 the park and building were placed on the National Register of Historic Places.