The War of 1812
Impressment of Americans into British service and the violation of American ships were among the causes of America's War of 1812 with the British, which lasted until 1815. Beginning in 1813, Virginians suffered from a British naval blockade of the Chesapeake Bay and from British troops plundering the countryside by the Bay and along the James, Rappahannock, and Potomac Rivers. The Virginia militia deflected a British attempt to take Norfolk in 1813 and engaged British forces throughout the war. By the end of the war, more than 2,000 enslaved African Americans in Virginia had gained their freedom aboard British ships.
Richmond's War of 1812 Defensive Camps
During the War of 1812, Virginia established militia encampments in eastern Henrico County to gaurd against possible British invasion. About a mile northeast of here was Camp Holly Springs (April 1813 - Feb. 1815), commanded briefly by Lt. Col. (later Brig. Gen.) John H. Cocke and afterward by Brig. Gen. Robert Porterfield. Camp Carter (Sept. 1814 to Feb. 1815), under Cocke's command, stood seven miles northeast of here on Williamsburg Road. Two miles east of Camp Carter was Camp Bottoms Bridge (Sept - Nov. 1814), commanded by Brig. Gen. William B. Chamberlayne. These encampments were never
threatened by British forces during the war.