Outside the MillBuilding The Mill
In searching for the remains of a mill, an archaeologist is forced to ask the same questions a miller pondered years ago — where should the mill be built and what should this building look like.
Of prime importance to the miller was the selection of the best location, often dictated by the need for a steady, reliable supply of fast-flowing water — the very source of power for a grist mill. Equally critical was choosing a well-forested area. Not only did the leaves provide a natural canopy to avert water evaporation, the trees and their roots also prevented both flash floods after heavy rain storms and dry streams during periods of drought.
Following this formula, Ninian Edmonston — a planter and surveyor — built his small mill in the mid-1760s. The facility was described in 1773 as "A Single geer'd breast mill that goes by water, hath a bolting cloth, and about 80 or 90 acres of land." Perhaps after Peter Kemp purchased this facility in 1790, he renovated the aging building with new automatic machinery. This property, which became known as "Kemp Mill," was purchased by Dr. Washington Durall in 1835 and completely demolished by 1842.
A The mill was constructed from surrounding
natural resources from the land owned by the miller. A millwright (a craftsman and architect) and neighbors helped with the construction. Generally, the structures were anywhere from two to three stories high to accommodate all the necessary machinery and the water wheel.
B Depending on the type of waterwheel, a deep millpond had to be built upstream from the milling facility.
C The sluice carried water from the pond to the waterwheel. It was equipped with a gate to control the speed of the water.
D The water then moved to the wheel pit where it rotated the waterwheel and created energy for the mill.
E After the water exited the waterwheel, it moved into the raceway and was carried back to the stream from which it came.
F In order for this system to function, a dam had to be built to hold water in the pond. When the pond became too full, excess water would flow over the spillway (G) into the overflow channel (H).
Such an industrial complex left a mark on the landscape...stay on the trail and you will see it for yourself!