The Mount Olive Baptist Church congregation was organized March 3, 1889, in the vicinity of Masontown, one of Austin's earliest African settlements. The early years of the congregation coincided with a period of intense optimism and community activism in the historic neighborhood (bounded by E. 3rd, E. 6th, Chicon, and Waller Streets). A number of significant African American religious and educational institutions were established in and around Masontown during this period, including Tillotson College (now Huston-Tillotson College), where the church's organizational meeting and early worship services took place.
In 1909, under the leadership of the Rev. J.H. Harrold, the congregation moved to its first church building at 1603 E. 4th Street in the heart of Masontown, changing space needs led the congregation to relocate to 1113 Leona Street in 1939 during the tenure of the Rev. A.H. Brown, and later to 1800 E. 11th Street during the pastorate of the Rev. H.A. Sneed.
Still located in an area of Austin settled early by African Americans, the Mount Olive Baptist Church congregation continues to maintain its historic ties to Huston-Tillotson College and actively pursues local mission programs in the community.