In 1639 Roger Ludlow and five companions, after serving in the Pequot War, purchased from the Indians a rich and abundant expanse of land which they called by the Indian name "Uncowaye." Shortly thereafter the name "Fairfield" replaced "Uncowaye." Originally this land consisted of present-day Fairfield, Greens Farms, Weston, Redding, Easton, and the western section of Bridgeport.
The following years brought rapid development, and Fairfield with its fine harbors became the leading town in western Connecticut.
Fairfield had a substantial influence upon the United Colonies of North America during the Revolutionary War. Because of its strong support for independence, the town was burned to the ground by British forces in 1779.
George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and the Marquis de Lafayette all, on occasion, visited Fairfield. John Hancock of Boston, a close friend of Thaddeus Burr, deputy from Fairfield to the General Assembly, married his fiancee Dorothy Quincy here in 1775.
After the destruction of the Revolutionary War period, with renewed vitality and strong determination Fairfield gradually rebuilt its homes, town buildings, churches, and schools. The years that followed produced many noted educators, statesmen, and businessmen. Gideon Tomlinson was elected Governor of Connecticut in 1827, and later to the United States Senate.
Roger Minott Sherman, outstanding lawyer served on the Supreme Court of Connecticut in 1839. William Webb Wakeman in 1860 owned one of the largest shipping fleets in America. Timothy Dwight, a leading educator, went on to become president of Yale College.
In 1981 Fairfield, Connecticut, with a population of 55,000, has retained, as can be viewed from this marker, much of the priceless charm and character which reflects its rich historic and architectural heritage.