Near this site, on May 5-7, 1814, British naval forces entered Oswego Harbor and conducted an amphibious assault on Fort Ontario and the Village of Oswego. Lieutenant Colonel George Mitchell, commanding 290 men of the 3rd U.S. Artillery Regiment and a Light Artillery company, 20 sailors from the USS Growler and the local militia at Fort Ontario, fought off one landing attempt and stubbornly resisted a second and final successful British attack before retreating south up the Oswego River to Oswego Falls, now Fulton.
Although Fort Ontario was ultimately destroyed and Oswego captured, the British soon left; Mitchell's delaying tactics had provided time to remove vital naval stores and supplies upriver to Oswego Falls. Within a few weeks, ropes rigging, sails, cannon, powder, and other supplies began flowing again through Oswego to Sackets Harbor. The U.S. Navy was able to maintain pace with British shipbuilders in Kingston, Ontario, in the struggle for naval control of Lake Ontario because of Mitchell's defense of Oswego.
The orange and yellow marigolds represent peace and freedom, and were the colors of the U.S. 3rd Artillery Regiment at the time of the battle. They also represent the colors of our nearby colleges: Syracuse University orange and SUNY Oswego green and gold. The multi-colored zinnias at the center of the garden represent the many nationalities that defended Oswego. The weeping cherry behind the Peace Garden sign symbolizes the sorrow of war, while the red geraniums surrounding the garden represent the sacrifices made by patriots during the War of 1812.
The War of 1812
Modeled on the International Peace garden concept that originated in Canada in 1990, a permanent trail of Peace Gardens have been established along the historic route where events of the War determined the future of Canada, the United States and the fate of many First Nations and Native American people. The garden route covers over 600 miles including USA and Canada. This is a cooperative undertaken by the International Peace Garden Foundation, 1812 Legacy Council
and its' many devoted volunteers.
The Bicentennial Peace Garden Trail
is designated to attract international visitors as well as residents of this historic region to experience and enjoy the natural beauty that these gardens provide while commemorating the peace that has existed between Canada and the United States over the past 200 years.
to obtain complete details on additional sites, history, locations & special events.
About the War of 1812
· The United States declared war on Great Britain June 18, 1812. This was the first time in history that the United States declared war on another nation.
· The War of 1812 was an armed conflict between United States and Great Britain from 1812-1814. Contrary to popular belief, it was not a conflict between the U.S. and Canada.
· The causes of the war were trade tensions, impressments, British support for Indian raids and U.S. territory expansion.
· In August of 1814 the British captured and burned Washington, D.C.
· The Star Spangled Banner was written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British naval ships. It became the United States' national anthem in 1931.
· Following five months of negotiations, the war was ended by the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in late 1814.
· Word of the signed treaty did not reach the United States until weeks later. The Battle of New Orleans, one of the war's bloodiest battles, actually took place after the treaty was signed.
· This war ultimately lead to independence for both the United States and Canada.