When Montgomery County
was created in 1776, the village today known as Rockville was selected as the seat of local government. Since that time, five court houses have been built in Courthouse Square. § Postal Service
began in Montgomery Court House Rockville in 1794. The first permanent post office opened on Washington Street in 1939. § The three waterways that run through Rockville — Watts Branch, Cabin John Creek,
and Rock Creek
powered mills that processed grain, wood, or bone in the 19th century. § The Town of Rockville
was incorporated in 1860.
In 1866, Rockville claimed seven church congregations. In 2006, Rockville had 75 Congregations
of many denominations. § Local residents established Rockville's First Public Library
in 1867. § Over the years Companies in Rockville
have produced biological products, boots, shoes, bricks, carbonated beverages, coffee, concrete, electronics, ice, newspapers, paint, pharmaceuticals, plastics, propane, gas, saddles, screen doors, shoe heels, sports cars, toothpaste, vaccines, wrappers, and more. § Chestnut Lodge
a psychiatric hospital that operated in the West End for more than nine decades was formerly the Woodlawn Hotel.
The Rockville Volunteer Fire Department
was organized after a fire nearly destroyed
Panel #2the business district in 1921. § The Seco, Milo, and Villa Theatres presented movies in buildings on the main street from the 1920s through the 1960s. § The brick and granite bank in Courthouse Square is Rockville's only surviving Art Deco Style building. § Rockville Adopted its first zoning ordinance in 1932, the first master plan in 1960, the first neighborhood plans in 1982, and its first comprehensive plan in 2002. § Most of Rockville's Civic , Care-Giving, Social, Cultural organizations were formed in the second half of the 20th Century.
Research and development ventures clustered around Chapman Avenue and Research Boulevard in the 1950s. Today, Rockville is known as the Heart of DNA Alley and Home of the Human Genome. § Rockville's First Medical Professional Building opened in 1958, on Veirs Mill Road. § Urban Renewal in the 1960s and 1970s displaced people and business razed buildings and spurred new residential, commercial, and civic development in the center of town. § Completed in 1960, the Rockville Civic Auditorium was later renamed after F. Scott Fitzgerald. § The City passed legislation to open Public Accommodations to all races in 1962.