Brooklet, known for its avenue of oak trees, took shape at the end of the 19th century on property owned by A.J. Lee. Optimistic citizens built a new town beside the recently completed Savannah & Statesboro Railroad. Dr. H.K. Thayer, an early resident, asked to the U.S. Post Office accept the name of Brooklet for the new town, since a brook ran through it. Before 1899, the area was called Nellwood. The post office was at the home of J.C. Cromley. Brooklet quickly grew, as businesses opened under the names of Clisby Cone, W.C. Parker, J.A. Warnock, and Parrish & Pretorius. Dr. J.M. McElveen and Dr. John I. Lane moved to the new town.
When the town was incorporated in 1907, Dr. Lane was elected its first Mayor. Brooklet became a thriving community in eastern Bulloch County with a school, bank, electric plant, telephone company, general merchandise stores, and a large lumber mill owned by J.N. Shearouse. His Shearouse Railroad intersected with the S & S Railroad near the center of town. Early churches were Methodist (1904), Baptist (1907), St. Marys AME Church (1907), and Primitive Baptist (1917). Little Bethel Baptist (1893) relocated to Brooklet in 1953.