Settled by people from Tennessee under an 1822 contract held by Sterling Clack Robertson (1785-1842), who later signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. Colony and county were named for him. County was created Dec. 14, 1837, organized March 1838.
County seats: "Old Franklin", 1838-1850; Wheelock, 1850-1855; Owensville, 1855-1869; Calvert, 1870-1879; Franklin, since 1879.
Sent 5 troop companies into Confederate service in Civil War. Established mill to make flour, cotton and wool cloth. Furnished cotton cards, medicines, flour, bacon and salt to soldiers families.