While on campaign, the armies tried to keep their baggage to a minimum, and tents required wagons. The British left most of their tents on their ships, so they built shelters called "wigwams" out of brush, leaves, cornstalks, sod, straw, and fence rails.
American sources refer to the wigwams as "booths." When Wayne was ordered to move behind Howe's army, his tents were left with the main army. Colonel Daniel Brodhead wrote that at 4 PM on September 20, six hours before the attack, "We Received Orders to prepare for a March. Accordingly the Division formed but the weather being Cloudy and threatening Rain we were Ordered to build Booths to secure our Arms & Ammunition & go to Rest." Washington repeatedly ordered his troops not to destroy farmers' fences, and Wayne's men removed fence rails only where necessary to allow movement in and out of camp.
Most of Wayne's soldiers were Pennsylvanians from a mixture of backgrounds: frontiersmen, farmers, small shopkeepers, and craftsmen. Many were foreign born, mostly in Northern Ireland and Germany. The dragoons included Virginians and Connecticut men, and the artillerymen were from Massachusetts and New Jersey. The highest ranking officer killed was Major Marien Lamar of the 4th Pennsylvania, who shouted, "Halt, boys, and give these assassins one fire!" and was bayoneted on horseback.
There were approximately 2200 personnel in Wayne's force: 9 infantry regiments, 1 artillery battalion with four light guns, and 3 troops of dragoons, and an estimated 20-25 wagons. The soldiers were supposed to receive daily 1-pound rations of flour and meat, and a gill [4 oz.] of "spirits" (whiskey, rum, or gin) to purify their water and ward off sickness.