Bethany Baptist Church was chartered on Sept. 8, 1828. The six charter members were James Garrett, Levin Collins, Uriah Jones, Lucy Garrett, Catherine Simmons and Mary Jones. The first pastor, John W. Cooper, served from 1828 to 1847. In 1847 the current building was constructed on a 7.5-acre parcel deeded by plantation owner, Joel Culpepper. Slaves attended with white families and were accepted as members. All "colored brethren" were granted letters of dismission in 1885 to constitute their own church, also named Bethany. In 1887, 37 members were granted letters in order to establish Chipley Baptist Church (now First Baptist Church of Pine Mountain).
The current Bethany Church was built in 1847. It is a small vernacular building in front gable form. An attached annex, added in 1972, replicates the form of the church. The interior retains beaded board walls and ceilings. Electricity was installed in the church during a revival in 1939, replacing four original oil lamps. The church has 23 memorial stained glass windows installed in 1962 and 1963. The adjacent cemetery contains graves dating from 1847 to the present. The church has also served as a school and farmers' grange. Bethany has been in continuous use as a church since its organization in 1828.