Eastover, so named for being "east and over" from Columbia, was a small rural community of the mid-19th century that grew into a town after the Wilmington, Columbia, & Augusta RR completed its line through this area in 1871. The town, chartered in 1880, was incorporated in 1907 with its limits designated as one-half mile in each direction from the tracks through the center of town.
Railroad lines to and through Lower Richland County allowed local markets to expand and farmers and merchants to prosper. By 1910 Eastover, then the only incorporated town in the county outside of Columbia, boasted a post office, a bank, several stores, and a cotton gin. In 1984 Union Camp, later International Paper, opened a pulp and paper plant near the town.