Chickamauga Campaign Heritage Trail
In late August 1863, the Federal Army of Cumberland began moving toward Georgia. On the extreme right of the Federal lines, the XX Corps, approximately 5,000 soldiers commanded by Major General Alexander M. McCook, began advancing across Lookout Mountain with Alpine, Summerville, and Rome, Georgia as the objective line of march.
At this site on September 1, 1863, Confederate cavalry of the Army of Tennessee commanded by Major General Joseph Wheeler massed to plan and impede the Federal advance. Wheeler's forces blockaded the mountain roads and passes with felled trees.
On September 1st, the Federal cavalry vanguard reached the east side of Lookout Mountain and there were cavalry skirmishes at Tap's Gap (present-day Cloudland) and at Neal's Gap in Chattooga County.
September 3, 1863- Confederate and Federal cavalry skirmish near Alpine at Henderson's Gap
September 5, 1863- Federal cavalry 2nd and 4th Indiana Cavalry regiments pass through Alpine on reconnaissance toward Melville (present-day Lyerly) and skirmish near Alpine with 2nd, 3rd, 4th Georgia and 5th Tennessee Confederate cavalry regiments.
September 8, 1863- Brigadier General George Crook, commander of the second division in Stanley's Federal Cavalry Corps, reported, "my command being in advance of General Stanley's expedition into Broomtown
Valley, met the enemy at Alpine where a skirmish ensued; the enemy retreated toward Rome, my loss was 3 killed and 11; could not tell what damage had been done to the enemy."
September 9, 1863- 9.00 a m onfederate Generals Nathan Bedford Forrest, Joseph Wheeler, and John Wharton meet at Alpine Skirmish on Lookout Mountain.
September 10. 1863- Federal cavalry reconnaissance from Alpine toward Rome, Lafayette. and Summerville, Georgia, and skirmish at Summerville.
September 11, 1863- General McCook's headquarters established at the foot of Lookout Mountain near Alpine. Federal commander Major General D. S. Stanley orders aggressive reconnaissance toward Lafayette attempting to establish contact ith General George Thomas' XIX Corps which General McCook believes is near Lafayette.
Federal infantry forces arrive in Alpine.
Federal Colonel Edward M. McCook leads First Cavalry Division from Alpine to Melville (present-day Lyerly) on reconnaissance toward Rome. Six companies of cavalry are sent to Dirt Town.
September 12, 1863- Skirmish at Alpine, most significant of Alpine skirmishes. Confederate records of General Joseph Wheeler estimate Confederate loss 50, Federal loss 200.
September 13, 1863- 8:00 a.m. Federal Major General Alexander M. McCook begins retrograde march of XX Army Corps infantry divisions back up and across Lookout Mountain. McCook's headquarters is on top of Lookout Mountain by 5:00 p.m.
September 15, 1863-Federal cavalry forces leave Alpine to rejoin XX Army Corps on Lookout Mountain.
September 19-20, 1863-The Battle of Chickamauga
Structures remaining in Alpine from the Civil War period include several residences constructed around original log cabin interiors. The Alpine Community (Presbyterian) Church and the Samuel Knox plantation house .(5 miles north of this site) retain their original antebellum appearance.