John Leathem and Thomas Smith established this dolomite quarry at the mouth of Sturgeon Bay in 1893. Though they produced dimension stone for building harbors around Lake Michigan, Leathem and Smith's quarry became a major operation by capitalizing on the growing demand for crushed stone for roads, railroad beds and concrete. In 1914, a huge stone crushing plant was constructed on the lower quarry floor. On the upper level, a steam shovel loaded stone into carts, which were hauled to the crushing plant by a miniature locomotive. Conveyors carried the crushed stone to screens where it was washed and sorted. From stockpiles, the stone was loaded onto ships converted to barges. The steel frontage and wooden pilings along the shore are remnants of the quarry dock. Just offshore lie the remains of two of the stone barges, the Joseph L. Hurd, built in 1869 as a passenger steamer, and the Mueller, built in 1887 as a steam-screw.