Evolution of a Marine Terminal

Evolution of a Marine Terminal (HM1CPN)

Location: Oakland, CA 94607 Alameda County
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Country: United States of America
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N 37° 47.705', W 122° 16.786'

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Oakland's waterfront has been rebuilt many times in response to changes in marine technology. In 1900 coal-laden schooners discharged their cargo into bunkers on Howard Terminal's pier. Dockside warehouses, known as transit sheds, held break-bulk cargo (such as bags of wheat) for the return trip. Longshoremen moved cargo between shore and vessels with hand trucks, shipboard derricks, and cargo nets. Finger piers reached out from the shore to deeper water. When shipbuilding transitioned from wind-powered wood hulls to fuel-powered steel hulls, the city built a quay wall along the shoreline west of Clay Street to provide deep-water berths for increasingly larger, deeper-draft vessels. Later, a paved wharf and several piers with transit sheds were added to the area. After the Port of Oakland was established in 1925, these municipal facilities were reconfigured as Grove Street Terminal, including a larger pier and u-shaped transit shed that served as the Port's headquarters from 1928 to 1966.
Containerization, introduced in Oakland in 1962, brought speed and standardization units to cargo handling. The Port bought the private Howard Terminal site in 1978, and built a modern container facility, Charles P. Howard Terminal, to replace outmoded break-bulk facilities.

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Constructed between 1910 and 1914, the quay wall was a long bulkhead that measured forty feet from top to bottom, and tapered from twenty-two feet wide at its base to eighteen inches at the top. Because the quay wall was built inland from the shore, tons of soil were removed on the harbor side. Dredging created a berthing basin with a depth of 27 feet at low tide. Sediment placed on the shore side of the wall became a 150-foot-wide wharf.
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HM NumberHM1CPN
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Placed ByPort of Oakland
Marker ConditionNo reports yet
Date Added Tuesday, September 30th, 2014 at 12:44am PDT -07:00
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Locationbig map
UTM (WGS84 Datum)10S E 563410 N 4183323
Decimal Degrees37.79508333, -122.27976667
Degrees and Decimal MinutesN 37° 47.705', W 122° 16.786'
Degrees, Minutes and Seconds37° 47' 42.30" N, 122° 16' 47.16" W
Driving DirectionsGoogle Maps
Area Code(s)510, 559, 415, 925, 650
Closest Postal AddressAt or near 132 San Francisco Bay Trail, Oakland CA 94607, US
Alternative Maps Google Maps, MapQuest, Bing Maps, Yahoo Maps, MSR Maps, OpenCycleMap, MyTopo Maps, OpenStreetMap

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