The Kansa tribe inhabited the Kansas River Valley, where it was first encountered by European traders in the early 18th century. Centered around a number of villages, Kansa society possessed a clearly demarcated social structure and rigid gender roles. The economy centered on cultivation of corn, beans, pumpkins, and the summer and fall buffalo hunts. Trade manipulations by Europeans led to the impoverishment of the tribe in the early 19th century. In 1844, the federal government relocated the Kansa to the Upper Neosho Valley near Council Grove. However, white squatters took over this area in the 1850's. In 1863, Congress authorized removal of all Indians from Kansas. The Kansa tribe was relocated to Oklahoma in 1873.