The Road to the Stronghold

The Road to the Stronghold (HM1NEN)

Location: Tulelake, CA 96134 Siskiyou County
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Country: United States of America
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N 41° 49.481', W 121° 30.042'

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Thousands of years ago, flowing lava cooled forming a natural fortress. The surrounding area later became the center of the Modoc Indian homeland. A series of events made this lava stronghold a focal point in the war to remove the Modoc from their land in 1872-1873.
Time line, left to right:

1846 - The blazing of the Applegate Emigrant Trail brings Modoc and settlers into increasingly frequent contact.
1864 - After years of conflict with settlers, the Modoc reluctantly sign a treaty to give up their homeland and move to a reservation in Oregon with neighboring Klamath and Yahooskin.
1870 - Extreme hardship on the reservation and clashes with the Klamath prompt a group of Modoc, led by Captain Jack, to move back to their homeland on the Lost River and demand a reservation there.
November 1872 - A botched attempt by the U.S. Army to arrest Captain Jack and other leaders at their Lost River village marks the beginning of the Modoc War. While a small band of Modoc under Hooker Jim retaliates by killing 14 settlers, the majority canoe immediately to the safety of the Stronghold.
December 1872-April 1973 - About 63 Modoc men, along with women and children, hold off some 600 U.S. troops and occupy the lava fortress - now known as Captain Jack's Stronghold - for almost five months.
Placed ByNational Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
Marker ConditionNo reports yet
Date Added Sunday, August 30th, 2015 at 5:01pm PDT -07:00
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Locationbig map
UTM (WGS84 Datum)10T E 624510 N 4631397
Decimal Degrees41.82468333, -121.50070000
Degrees and Decimal MinutesN 41° 49.481', W 121° 30.042'
Degrees, Minutes and Seconds41° 49' 28.86" N, 121° 30' 2.52" W
Driving DirectionsGoogle Maps
Area Code(s)530
Which side of the road?Marker is on the right when traveling East
Closest Postal AddressAt or near Unnamed Road, Tulelake CA 96134, US
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